Dry eyes syndrome, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is one of the most common eye conditions that affects millions of people worldwide[1]. This occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly. Tears are essential for maintaining the health of the eye’s front surface and for providing clear vision. Dry eye syndrome can lead to discomfort, irritation, and in some cases, vision problems.

What is Dry Eye Disease?

Dry eyes happen when the eyes lack sufficient lubrication[2] due to inadequate tear production or there is rapid tear evaporation. This imbalance can result in discomfort, redness, sensitivity to light, and blurred vision. Some contributing factors to this condition include aging, hormonal changes, medications, and environmental conditions. Typically, diagnosing dry eye will consist of examinations and treatments ranging from artificial tears and lifestyle adjustments to prescription medications. Some preventive measures in which this eye condition can be managed include staying hydrated, a balanced diet, and protecting the eyes in various conditions. Regular eye exams are also crucial for early detection and management of dry eye syndrome. Getting to the root of why you are experiencing dry eyes will also be a major factor in treatment and prevention.

How are tears made?

Tears are a combination of water, oils, and mucus[3] that are important in maintaining eye health. Tears lubricate, nourish, and protect the cornea. The tear film comprises three layers. The oil or lipid is the outermost layer of the tear film and is responsible for cleaning the eye and washing away foreign particles. The watery layer is the middle tear film and it makes up most of what we see as tears. Finally, the inner layer is the mucus layer which helps the watery layer to spread over the eye’s surface and keeps it moist. Whenever we cry or our eyes get irritated, they then produce tears. However, there are times when they cannot make enough tears which results in dry eyes.

What are the different types of Dry Eye Disease?

Dry eye disease can be categorized into three main types based on underlying causes and mechanisms. Identifying the specific type of dry eye is crucial for determining the most effective treatment plan.

  • Aqueous-Deficient Dry Eye: This type occurs when the lacrimal glands fail to produce enough aqueous (watery) component of tears, leading to an insufficient quantity of tears. Aqueous-deficient dry eye is often associated with autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren’s syndrome, which affects the glands responsible for tear production.
  • Evaporative Dry Eye: Evaporative dry eye is characterized by an imbalance in the tear composition, particularly a deficiency in the lipid (oil) layer of tears. This can result from conditions like meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) where the glands responsible for producing the tear’s lipid layer become blocked or dysfunctional. The lack of proper lubrication can lead to increased tear evaporation.
  • Mixed Dry Eye: This is a common type that involves insufficient tear production and increased tear evaporation. The causes can vary, and treatments often target both aspects of tear dysfunction.

What are the symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome?

Dry eye syndrome can manifest through a variety of symptoms which may vary in intensity. Individuals may experience a combination of these symptoms with different degrees of severity. Common signs and symptoms include:

  • Dryness
  • Burning or stinging
  • Redness
  • Foreign body sensation
  • Watery eyes
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty wearing contact lenses
  • Eye fatigue

What are the causes of Dry Eye?

Dry eye can result from various causes, including aging, hormonal changes (especially in women), medications like antihistamines and antidepressants, environmental factors such as dry or windy climates, and prolonged screen use. Medical conditions like Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes can also contribute. Insufficient tear production or poor tear quality, often due to meibomian gland dysfunction, can lead to an evaporative dry eye. Reduced blinking, which is common during extended screen time, can exacerbate symptoms. Lifestyle choices, low omega-3 fatty acids diet, and systemic diseases can further aggravate the condition. Identifying and addressing these factors is crucial for effective dry eye management.

What can dry eye be a sign of?

A dry eye can be a sign of various underlying conditions, and it is often a symptom rather than a standalone condition. Some of the conditions associated with dry eye include:

  • Sjögren’s Syndrome: An autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks the glands that produce moisture, leading to dry eyes and dry mouth.
  • Diabetes: Diabetes can affect the nerves and blood vessels in the eyes and can lead to dry eye symptoms.
  • Thyroid Eye Disease: An autoimmune condition affecting the thyroid gland that can cause eye-related symptoms including dryness.
  • Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids, particularly the meibomian glands, can disrupt the normal production of oils in tears contributing to dry eye.
Tips for Eye Health

What are the risk factors associated with Dry Eye Syndrome?

  • Several factors can increase the risk of developing dry eye syndrome.
  • Aging is a primary risk factor, as tear production tends to diminish with age.
  • Hormonal changes, particularly in women during menopause, can contribute.
  • Chronic diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and thyroid disorders elevate the risk.
  • Prolonged screen time and reduced blinking associated with computer use increase the likelihood of dry eye symptoms.
  • Environmental factors such as exposure to windy or dry climates. Indoor heating or air conditioning can also cause the dry eye syndrome to develop.
  • Medications like antihistamines, decongestants, and antidepressants can cause dryness. Contact lens wearers may be at higher risk,
  • An inadequate diet that lacks omega-3 fatty acids may contribute.
  • What are some treatments and management tips for Dry Eye?

    There are a few things that can be done to fix and manage dry eyes.

    • Artificial Tears: Lubricating eye drops or artificial tears can provide temporary relief supplementing the production of natural tears. Various formulations are available over the counter.
    • Prescription Medications: For more severe cases, prescription eye drops may be recommended to reduce inflammation, increase tear production, and improve tear quality.
    • Lifestyle Modifications: Changes to daily habits can help manage dry eye symptoms. This includes taking breaks during prolonged screen use, staying well-hydrated, and avoiding environments with excessive wind or dry air.
    • Warm Compresses and Lid Hygiene: Applying warm compresses to the eyes can help open blocked meibomian glands and improve the tears’ oil layer. Lid hygiene practices can reduce inflammation associated with conditions like blepharitis.
    • Nutritional Supplements: Supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, may contribute to a healthier lipid layer in tears. One example is the Ocuvital Eye Health Supplement which contains essential nutrients like zinc, turmeric root, Vitamin A, and lutein, and it supports overall eye health.
    • Environmental Changes: Using a humidifier to add moisture to indoor air can protect the eyes and create a more comfortable environment for individuals with dry eyes.
    • Blinking Exercises: Practicing conscious blinking, especially during prolonged periods of screen use, can help distribute tears more evenly and reduce the risk of evaporative dry eye.
    • Specialized Eyewear: Wraparound sunglasses or moisture chamber glasses can shield the eyes from environmental factors and potentially reduce tear evaporation.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    What causes dry eyes at night?

    Dry eyes at night can be attributed to various factors and understanding the specific cause is essential for effective management. One common reason is incomplete or insufficient blinking during sleep which leads to reduced distribution of tears across the eyes. Additionally, nighttime dryness may result from environmental conditions such as low bedroom humidity, and exposure to air conditioning or heating systems. These can contribute to increased tear evaporation. Certain medications, particularly those with drying side effects, may impact tear production. Nocturnal lagophthalmos, a condition where individuals don't fully close their eyes during sleep, can expose the eyes to air and exacerbate dryness. Individuals with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may also experience worsened symptoms at night as these glands play a crucial role in producing the tears’ oil component. Seeking professional evaluation can help pinpoint the cause and the appropriate treatment for nighttime dry eyes.

    Can dry eyes cause blindness?

    Dry eyes, if left untreated, can heighten severity and lead to complications that may affect vision. Chronic dry eye can result in corneal damage, increasing the risk of infections and corneal ulcers. The chronic condition can potentially lead to vision impairment. However, it is rare for dry eyes to directly cause blindness. Additionally, persistent inflammation from untreated dry eye may contribute to structural changes in the eye over time. While the majority of dry eye cases do not lead to blindness, the associated discomfort and potential complications underscore the importance of proper management. Seeking timely medical attention, addressing underlying causes, and following prescribed treatments can mitigate the risk of complications and help maintain long-term eye health. Regular eye exams are crucial for detecting and managing conditions like dry eye syndrome before they progress to more serious complications.

    Is dry eye syndrome serious?

    Dry eye syndrome is generally not considered life-threatening, but it can significantly impact one's quality of life and eye health. While common, especially with aging, persistent or severe cases of dry eye can lead to complications. Corneal damage, infections, and vision disturbances may occur if the condition is left untreated. Chronic inflammation associated with dry eye can contribute to long-term structural changes in the eye. Furthermore, the discomfort and irritation can affect daily activities and productivity. While not inherently serious, the potential complications emphasize the importance of proper management and seeking professional advice. Timely intervention, lifestyle adjustments, and appropriate treatments ranging from artificial tears to prescription medications can help alleviate symptoms and prevent the progression of dry eye syndrome. Regular eye exams are essential for early detection and management of dry eye and related conditions.


    While dry eye syndrome is generally not life-threatening, its impact on daily life and eye health can be detrimental. Persistent symptoms can lead to complications that affect vision and overall well-being. However, with timely diagnosis and proper management, including lifestyle adjustments, the use of artificial tears, and the addition of supplements such as Occuvite, individuals can find relief and prevent the condition’s progression. It is essential to prioritize eye health and regular eye exams can pave the way to early detection and intervention. Having a good understanding, proper management, and taking the necessary treatments should give anyone affected by this condition a better quality of life.